Software description of the Hand

Graphical User Interface

The majority of functionality is provided by the software Application Programmer Interface (API). However, a few simple functions are provided in the Graphical User Interface (GUI) to test the hand, validate that it is working correctly, and adjust some of its settings.

Starting the interface

You may open the Graphical User Interface to try out some functions of the hand. From the Docker terminal, type:

$ rqt

This interface contains a number of plugins for interacting with the EtherCAT hand. Most of them are available from the Plugins → Shadow Robot menu.

Robot Monitor

We can check that everything on the robot is working correctly using the Diagnostic Viewer.

Plugins → Robot Tools → Diagnostic Viewer


This brings up a dialog box containing a tree of all parts of the robot. All parts should be marked with a green tick.

You can examine one motor in detail by double-clicking on it. This brings up the Motor Monitor dialog. This window can be used to check the status of a motor, or debug any problems.


The following table has some more information on what each of these fields mean.

Item Description
Full Name  
Hardware ID  
Message Any error or status messages
Motor ID This is the motor number. Range [0..19]
Motor ID in message For debugging only
Strain Gauge Left / Right These are the ADC readings from the two gauges
Executed Effort  
Motor Flags See motor flags table below
Measured current Current flowing through the motor (Amps)
Measured Voltage The motor power supply voltage. Not the voltage at the motor
Temperature The temperature measured near the motor. The actual motor winding temperature will be higher than this. (ºC)
Number of CAN messages Received messages should be twice the transmitted messages
Force control P, I, D terms These are the PID terms from inside the motor’s torque controller. They may be useful for debugging if plotted.
Force control F, P, I, D, Imax, Deadband, Sign These are the FPID gain settings used by the motor’s torque controller. They can be changed using the controller tuner.
Last Measured Effort Difference between the two gauge readings (Torque)
Last Commanded Effort Torque requested by the host-side control algorithms
Encoder Position The angle of the joint in radians (ROS always calls this Encoder position, even if the robot uses Hall effect sensors)
Firmware svn revision xxxx: The latest version of the firmware available at build time
  xxxx: The version of the firmware in the motor MCU
  False: There are no un-checked-in modifications to this firmware. This should never be true.

Controller tuner

It is possible to adjust the settings for any of the Position or Force (Motor) controllers. Plugins → Shadow Robot → Basic → Controller Tuner

Position controller


Here you can select a finger, thumb or wrist joints, and adjust the different position control parameters. Click Set Selected to send the new values to the motors and make them take effect.

  • “P”, “I” & “D” terms: Gain parameters of the position PID controller. By default, Shadow tunes the paramenters using P or PD combinations. The user can add “I” gains in the control if they consider it necessary.
  • Max_force: This puts a limit on the output (PWM) value that will be sent from the host to the motor by the position controller. It can be useful when setting up a controller for the first time to limit the motor power to a safe level.
  • Position_Deadband: The error is considered to be zero if it is within ±deadband. This value should be set as a little more than the noise on the sensor. The units of deadband are the same as the value being controlled. So, the deadband for a position controller is in radians.

Force controller

  • “P”, “I” & “D” terms: Gain parameters of the torque PID controller. By default, Shadow tunes the paramenters using just P gain for the torque control.
  • Max_PWM: This puts a limit on the final PWM value that will be sent to the motor by the torque controller. It can be useful when setting up a controller for the first time to limit the motor power to a safe level.
  • Deadband: The error is considered to be zero if it is within ±deadband. This value should be set as a little more than the noise on the sensor. The units of deadband are the same as the value being controlled. The deadband for a torgue controller is in the units of the strain gauges.
  • Torque_Limit: This value is used to limit the PWM at the end of the control loop. The control algoritm reduces the final PWM that goes to the motor making sure that the force in the strain gauge doesn’t overcome this limit value.

Click Save to save your settings.


The firmware in the motors MCUs can be updated from the PC, without opening up the motor base. This can be done from the GUI. Shadow will send you a new HEX if there is an update. Plugins → Shadow Robot → Advanced → Motor Bootloader

You will see a window listing each motor board, along with its current firmware SVN revision number.

  • Select Bootloader Hex File: Next, tell the plugin which firmware to use. The file you should choose here is the one sent by Shadow.
  • Select your motors: Now you may choose which motors to program. Either select one or more motors using the tick boxes, or click the Select All or Deselect All button.
  • Program Motors: Now you can click the Bootload Motors button. The process is fairly slow, and takes about a 30 second per motor.


The change of file should be previously confirmed with us to ensure that is compatible with your hardware. A wrong motor firmware update can crash the system of the robot.

Change controllers

Use the Change Controllers plugin to load one of the three different types of controllers set by default. Simply click on a controller type, and it will call a service from the pr2_controller_manager to unload the currently running controller if necessary, and load the one you’ve selected. Plugins → Shadow Robot → Change Controllers


Advanced controllers

Apart from the three standard controls, you can set the parameters for different control strategies (host – motor) from this plugin. Plugins → Shadow Robot → Advanced → Advanced Controls


This plugin will not work if you have selected the trajectory controller.


Currently, the only fully supported types are position - pwm control (position control), and effort - torque control (teach mode control). SELECTING OTHER TYPES MAY CAUSE UNPREDICTABLE RESULTS AND DAMAGE THE HARDWARE.

Motor Resetter

If for some reason you need to reset the firmware on a motor, you can either press the reset button on the PCB itself (which requires removal of the base covers), or use this plugin. Plugins → Shadow Robot → Basic → Motor Resetter


Tick the motors you wish to reset, and click Reset Motors. You should see the corresponding joints jiggle as the motors auto-zero the strain gauges.

Joint Sliders

A simple interface has been provided to control the position of each joint using a slider. Plugins → Shadow Robot → Joint Sliders


A window with twenty sliders will appear. Moving any slider will cause the corresponding joint on the hand to move. You have to start the hand in either position control or teach mode. If the control is changed, reload the plugin to make sure that the sliders correspond to the control that is running at this moment.

Hand Calibration

This plugin is used internally by Shadow to calibrate the raw data from the position sensors. The calibration has to be run on the NUC machine, therefore rqt has to be started from it. To do that, you can use a desktop icon prepared for this purpuse:

../_images/shadow_nuc_rqt.pngShadow NUC RQT

Within rqt, go to: Plugins → Shadow Robot → Basic → Shadow Hand Calibration


It’s very unlikely that the sensors moved inside of the hand, BUT, if you find misalligments with the model and you require a re-calibration, contact Shadow Robot Company here:

Data Visualizer

A GUI is provided to show all the data available for the Dexterous Hand. Plugins → Shadow Robot → Dexterous Hand Data Visualizer


You also can launch it separately from rqt by running the following command:

roslaunch sr_data_visualization data_visualizer.launch

In each tab, you can find information about:

  • Joint states (position, effort, velocity)
  • Control loops (setpoint, input, dinput/dt, output, error)
  • Motor stats (Strain Gauge Left, Strain Gauge Right, Measured PWM, Measured Current, Measured Voltage, Measured Effort, Temperature, Unfiltered position, Unfiltered force, Last Commanded Effort, Encoder Position)
  • Palm extras (Accelerometer, Gyro-meter, Analog inputs)
  • Tactile sensor data (Pressure AC 0, Pressure AC 1, Pressure DC, Temperature AC, Temperature DC)
  • Tactile sensor visualizer

The radio buttons let you choose specific data to show or you can choose “All” to see several graphs being displayed at the same time.

Command line interface

All functions of the hand are available from the command line.

In the following sections, Hand refers to the shadow dexterous hand and Host refers to the host computer which is controlling the hand. Assume that all the topics are read only unless specified otherwise.

Using rostopic

To check how to interact with ROS topics, see:

The following rqt_graph shows the flow of topics between nodes whilst the hand is running.


Here is a list of the available topics:

  • Calibration (Real hand only)

    These topics are used during the Hand startup routine to make sure that the Hand is calibrated:


    An empty message is published to the /cal_sh_rh_*/calibrated topics for each joint when they are calibrated. The /calibrate_sr_edc node subscribes to these topics and when all of them have had an empty message published to them, it publishes True to the /calibrated topic. Before empty messages have been received by all the joints it publishes False to the /calibrated topic.

  • Diagnostics (Real hand only)


    These topics update at 2 Hz with information on each joint’s Temperature, Current, Measured effort and Command effort, as well as information about the EtherCat devices and firmware version.

  • Joint states


    This topic is read-only and updates at 100 Hz with the name, position, velocity and effort values of all joints in a Hand.

    Example topic message:

    name: [rh_FFJ1, rh_FFJ2, rh_FFJ3, rh_FFJ4, rh_LFJ1, rh_LFJ2, rh_LFJ3, rh_LFJ4, rh_LFJ5,
    rh_MFJ1, rh_MFJ2, rh_MFJ3, rh_MFJ4, rh_RFJ1, rh_RFJ2, rh_RFJ3, rh_RFJ4, rh_THJ1,
    rh_THJ2, rh_THJ3, rh_THJ4, rh_THJ5, rh_WRJ1, rh_WRJ2]
    position: [1.279751244673038, 1.7231505348398373, 1.2957917583498741, -0.00406710173435502, 0.054689233814909366, 1.253488840949725, 1.5395435039130654, 0.02170017906073821, 0.1489674305718295, 1.08814400717011, 1.638917596069165, 1.4315445985097324, 0.00989364236002074, 1.2257618075487349, 1.8331224739256338, 1.2888368284819698, -0.13269012433948385, 0.14435534682895756, 0.6980816915624072, 0.18782898954368935, 1.124295322901818, 0.21905854304869088, -0.048455186771971595, -0.0032803323337213066]
    velocity: [-7.484333985952662e-06, -7.484333985952662e-06, 0.0023735860019749185, 0.00062181267775619, -0.0005871136552505063, -0.0005871136552505063, 0.0020967687295392933, 0.0001739028157522596, 0.0004985252400775274, -9.485516545601461e-06, -9.485516545601461e-06, -0.0007068752456452666, -0.0012475428276090576, 0.0008426052935621657, 0.0008426052935621657, 0.001237001167977189, -0.0026444893567459573, 0.0025260047430310925, -0.0003217106977882921, 6.159570145597239e-05, -0.0023454723015513593, 0.0009436399232442155, 0.00017469681801687975, -4.900148416020751e-05]
    effort: [-1.3660655058510802, -1.3660655058510802, -2.030169817308198, -1.9577332816789155, 0.0, 0.0, -17.29928766980003, -1.5006516553524243, -1.8579749510438912, -1.504877130092884, -1.504877130092884, -0.3374653182042338, -1.6492254479379729, -8.476660697182016, -8.476660697182016, -3.3867013328219056, -2.3404145772688683, -0.7688013735971971, 11.02319645071454, 0.8482082620071664, 0.08818910881575533, 1.127772119947565, -2.2344970991165316, -3.5544023107705667]
  • etherCAT (Real hand only)


    This topic is published by the driver and updates at 800 Hz with data from the Hand as it is received over EtherCAT, which is useful for debugging.

    • sensors are the position sensors in the joints, which are included in every packet.
    • tactile is the data from the tactile sensors, which are included in every packet.
    • Data is recieved in two alternative packets for the motor torques, each holds data for half of the 20 motors. If which_motors is 0 then the data is for the first 10 motors. If 1, the data is for the second 10 motors.
    • motor_data_packet_torque is the raw difference between the strain gauge in tension and the strain gauge in compression for each motor.
    • motor_data_type is used to specify the data in motor_data_packet_misc. This data has been requested from the host. Which value corresponds to which data is defined here.
    • which_motor_data_arrived is a bitmap, 20x1 demensional array for the 20 motors, which shows which motors data has been recieved from. For example 349525 = 01010101010101010101.
    • which_motor_data_had_errors is a bitmap for the motors which have errors.
    • The tactile sensors attached to the Hand are selected during startup, their corresponding values are here.
    • tactile_data_type is used to specify the data in tactile, similar to motor_data_type and motor_data_packet_misc. In the Example topic message below the PST fingertip sensors are used, its value is refered here.
    • tactile_data_valid is a bitmap for the 5 sensors that is 1 when there are no errors.
    • idle_time_us is the time margin once the Hand has completed its processing and is ready for to communicate on the EtherCAT bus.


    More data is transmitted from the tactile sensors than is published to the etherCAT topic by default.

    Example /rh/debug_etherCAT_data topic message:

      seq: 176798
        secs: 1528812878
        nsecs: 323410491
      frame_id: ''
    sensors: [1303, 1574, 3205, 1780, 1382, 1523, 3164, 1938, 904, 1332, 2977, 1706, 1730, 1434, 3060, 1853, 1955, 1814, 2132, 2294, 2496, 4029, 1668, 2931, 1768, 1377, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 0, 19, 8, 9, 0]
      data: 3
    which_motors: 0
    which_motor_data_arrived: 349525
    which_motor_data_had_errors: 0
    motor_data_packet_torque: [15, -31, -4, 3, 0, 0, -207, -3, -55, -3]
    motor_data_packet_misc: [-105, -47, 0, -39, 0, 0, 120, 0, 79, 0]
    tactile_data_type: 0
    tactile_data_valid: 31
    tactile: [407, 429, 416, 398, 389]
    idle_time_us: 430
      seq: 176799
        secs: 1528812878
        nsecs: 324399217
      frame_id: ''
    sensors: [1303, 1574, 3205, 1780, 1382, 1523, 3164, 1938, 904, 1332, 2977, 1706, 1731, 1434, 3060, 1853, 1955, 1814, 2131, 2294, 2496, 4030, 1669, 2931, 1768, 1376, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 19, 10, 0, 0, 0]
      data: 4
    which_motors: 1
    which_motor_data_arrived: 699050
    which_motor_data_had_errors: 0
    motor_data_packet_torque: [-29, -3, 1, -35, -1, -22, -18, 35, 4, 5]
    motor_data_packet_misc: [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
    tactile_data_type: 0
    tactile_data_valid: 0
    tactile: [407, 429, 416, 398, 389]
    idle_time_us: 394
  • Palm Extras


    This topic updates at 84 Hz with data from additional devices plugged into the palm.

    Example topic message:

          label: "accelerometer"
          size: 3
          stride: 0
          label: "gyrometer"
          size: 3
          stride: 0
          label: "analog_inputs"
          size: 4
          stride: 0
      data_offset: 0
    data: [26.0, 27.0, 28.0, 29.0, 30.0, 31.0, 4.0, 5.0, 0.0, 8.0]

    The first six values are readings from an IMU set in the hand. The IMU is an add-on feature so some hands might not have this data available.

  • Tactile (Only for a real hand with tactile sensors)


    This topic is published by the driver at 100 Hz with data from tactile sensors.

    Example topic message when using PST fingertip sensors:

      seq: 126618
        secs: 1528813967
        nsecs: 440903704
      frame_id: "rh_distal"
    pressure: [405, 428, 422, 401, 384]
    temperature: [1224, 1198, 1225, 1242, 1266]

    Example topic message when using BioTac fingertip sensors:

    pac0: 2048
    pac1: 2054
    pdc: 2533
    tac: 2029
    tdc: 2556
    electrodes: [2622, 3155, 2525, 3062, 2992, 2511, 3083, 137, 2623, 2552, 2928, 3249, 2705, 3037, 3020, 2405, 3049, 948, 2458, 2592, 3276, 3237, 3244, 3119]
    pac0: 0
    pac1: 0
    pdc: -9784
    tac: 32518
    tdc: 0
    electrodes: [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
    pac0: 0
    pac1: 0
    pdc: -9784
    tac: 32518
    tdc: 0
    electrodes: [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
    pac0: 0
    pac1: 0
    pdc: -9784
    tac: 32518
    tdc: 0
    electrodes: [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
    pac0: 0
    pac1: 0
    pdc: -9784
    tac: 32518
    tdc: 0
    electrodes: [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
  • BioTac (Only for a real hand with Biotac tactile sensors)

    These topics are read-only and update at 100 Hz with data from the biotac sensors, which comprises their pressure, temperature and electrode resistance. This topic is published from the /biotac_republisher node which receives this data from the driver via the /rh/tactile topic. For further information about the biotacs, refer to their documentation:

    Example /rh/biotac_** topic message:

    pac0: 2056
    pac1: 2043
    pdc: 2543
    tac: 2020
    tdc: 2454
    electrodes: [2512, 3062, 2404, 2960, 2902, 2382, 2984, 138, 2532, 2422, 2809, 3167, 2579, 2950, 2928, 2269, 2966, 981, 2374, 2532, 3199, 3152, 3155, 3033]
  • Trajectory Controller

    • Command


      This topic can be published to and is the set position for the trajectory controller. It comprises an array of all the joints set positions and is used for commanding the robot. For example the rqt joint sliders publish to it.

      Example topic message:

      joint_names: [rh_FFJ1, rh_FFJ2, rh_FFJ3, rh_FFJ4, rh_MFJ1, rh_MFJ2, rh_MFJ3, rh_MFJ4, rh_RFJ1,
      rh_RFJ2, rh_RFJ3, rh_RFJ4, rh_LFJ1, rh_LFJ2, rh_LFJ3, rh_LFJ4, rh_LFJ5, rh_THJ1,
      rh_THJ2, rh_THJ3, rh_THJ4, rh_THJ5, rh_WRJ1, rh_WRJ2]
      positions: [0.24434609527920614, 0.8203047484373349, 0.8552113334772214, -0.17453292519943295, 1.0297442586766545, 1.4311699866353502, 1.413716694115407, 0.007182575752410699, 0.9773843811168246, 1.5707963267948966, 1.2566370614359172, -0.12217304763960307, 0.4014257279586958, 1.2566370614359172, 1.5184364492350666, 0.017453292519943295, 0.13962634015954636, 0.12217304763960307, 0.6632251157578453, 0.17453292519943295, 1.117010721276371, -0.7504915783575618, -0.03490658503988659, 0.0]
      velocities: [0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
      accelerations: []
      effort: []
      secs: 0
      nsecs: 5000000
    • State


      This topic is read-only and updates at 50 Hz from the trajectory controller with the positions and velocities of all 24 joints.

      Example topic message:

      positions: [0.0029928404547430176, 0.0007821521859359137, 0.004102784627362688, -0.001230489872427576, 0.002876479952986344, 0.0006426181816490129, 0.006354919224207833, 0.00213663812281073, 0.003279618063753098, 0.0020929781564538175, 0.0063066586043154516, 0.0038023568140372888, -0.002289758750686488, -1.1040675065743244e-05, 0.008137524637908733, -2.1288137004304986e-05, 0.0009348013388894572, -0.003295237358051928, 0.039981480504079236, -0.0035961821430152696, 0.0032603043080507987, 2.9988784142176428e-05, -0.00029934074598525484, -8.999634459527783e-05]
      velocities: [-0.0008510441551395189, -0.0008510441551395189, 0.00016883698712266695, 0.00034715798956923955, -0.00017869100331692196, -0.00017869100331692196, -0.001275520583476054, -0.0004885423191519772, 0.00012555078906251334, 0.00012555078906251334, 0.0028653614401722843, -0.0008023399951605057, 0.0011760287859774613, 0.0011760287859774613, -0.0005423468659163991, -0.00017066612487367117, 0.0003102610817406156, -0.001127052578802167, -0.001465708865391472, -0.00028520412005307133, -0.00029795158858164227, 0.0002596403670543647, -5.819600689424957e-05, -0.0002980347643777659]
    • follow_joint_trajectory

      These topics provide information about positions, velocities and accelerations of joints whilst executing a trajectory from the current pose to the goal pose:


      The following topic is used to stop a currently executing trajectory:

  • Position Controller

    • Command


      These topics can be published to and are the set position of each joint in radians. The topics are subscribed to by the driver (/sr_hand_robot node). This topic is used to communicate the set position with the rqt Joint Sliders plugin, when using position control. The Hand can be set to position control using the Change Controllers rqt plugin.

      Example of running

        $ rostopic info /sh_rh_ffj0_position_controller/command
      Type: std_msgs/Float64
      /rqt_gui_py_node_23644 (http://shadow-bravo:38385/)
      /sr_hand_robot (http://shadow-bravo:45091/)
      /rostopic_15687_1526406188893 (http://shadow-bravo:36637/)
      /record (http://shadow-bravo:35575/)

      Example topic message:

      data: 0.628318530718
    • State


      These topics are published at 87 Hz by the driver (/sr_hand_robot node). They contain messages of type control_msgs/JointControllerState, which contain the parameters used for the each joints position controller.

      Example topic message:

      set_point: 1.1113358647
      process_value: 1.11095072243
      process_value_dot: 0.000426142920695
      error: 0.0
      time_step: 0.001
      command: 0.0
      p: -3800.0
      i: 0.0d: 0.0
      i_clamp: 0.0
      antiwindup: False
    • Force


      The /sh_rh_*_position_controller/max_force_factor topic can be published to and scales down the maximum output command of the joints position controller. The output command is interpreted by the driver (/sr_hand_robot node) as PWM if the driver is in PWM mode, or as tendon force if it is in Torque mode. The maximum force is controlled by the parameter “max_force” that is specified in this yaml file. max_force_factor has a value between [0.0, 1.0] and controls the percentage of the max_force that will be effectively considered.

      This parameter doesn’t exist in the grasp controller.

  • PID parameters


    These topics are read-only and contain parameters used for tuning the position controllers. They should not be published to directly, but can be accessed through rqt_reconfigure.

  • TF


    These topics store information on the active transforms in the ROS environment and holds their position and orientation in relation to their parents. Static tfs are fixed and the dynamic tfs update at 100 Hz. They can be published to, as well as read from. For further information on ROS tfs see the ROS wiki:

  • Mechanism Statistics


    This topic is read-only and updates at 1 Hz with the attributes of each joint, for example:

    position: 0.715602037549
    velocity: 0.0
    measured_effort: -11.088
    commanded_effort: -10.799974692
    is_calibrated: False
    violated_limits: False
    odometer: 0.0
    min_position: 0.715218542352
    max_position: 0.715985532746
    max_abs_velocity: 0.0363159179688
    max_abs_effort: 15.84
  • Moveit! Topics

    In Position control the Moveit topics are used for trajectory planning. They are described in their documentation here:

  • Collisions

    These are used for object collision avoidance if it is active.

  • Trajectory Execution

    Live information regarding the current trajectory execution.

  • RViz Topics

    These topics are used to interface with RViz. Documentation for this can be found here:


Using rosservice

To reset individual motors, E.G. FFJ3:

  $ rosservice call /realtime_loop/reset_motor_FFJ3

To change control modes, E.G. teach mode:

  $ rosservice call /realtime_loop/xxxxxx

Writing controllers

Rather than use the ROS topics to access sensor data, you will need to write a plugin for the PR2 Controller Manager. This will give you access to the sensor data at the full 1kHz rate, and allow you to create your own control algorithms for the hand. Please see this page for more information about the PR2 Controller Manager:

The Controller Manager is the node that talks to the hardware via EtherCAT and provides a facility for hosting plugins. The position controllers you have already used are examples of this. Note that the Controller Manager can host any number of running controllers but one should be loaded at a time for a given joint so they don’t fight for control.

Deeper settings

Editing PID settings

The motor controller PID settings are stored in YAML files. You can find the files in the next folder:

  $ roscd sr_ethercat_hand_config/controls/

Changing motor data update rates

Each motor can return two sensor readings every 2ms. The first is always the measured torque. The second is requested by the host. This allows the host to decide on the sensor update rate of each sensor. Currently, the rates cannot be adjusted at run-time, and are specified in a file which you can edit. To edit the file:

$ roscd sr_robot_lib/config
$ gedit motor_data_polling.yaml

The complete list of motor sensors appears in the file, along with a number

Number Meaning
-2 Read once when the driver is launched
-1 Read as fast as possible
0 Do not use zero
>0 Read period in seconds

Sensors set to -1 will be read in turn, unless it’s time to read another sensor. Usually 5 sensors are set to -1, meaning that they are sampled at 100Hz.

Robot commander

The robot commander provides a high level interface to easily control the different robots supported by Shadow Robot. It encapsulates functionality provided by different ROS packages, especially the moveit_commander, providing access via a simplified interface.

There are three clases available:



The main purpose of the robot commander is to provide a base class to the hand commander. The RobotCommander should not be used directly unless necessary. Use the SrHandCommander instead.

Examples of usage can be found here.

In the following sections, you can find decriptions of the most relevant functions of the hand commander.

Basic terminology

A robot is described using an srdf file which contains the semantic description that is not available in the urdf. It describes a robot as a collection of groups that are representations of different sets of joints which are useful for planning. Each group can have its end-effector and group states specified. Group states are a specific set of joint values predifined for a group with a given name, for example close_hand or open_hand.

As the robot commander is a high lever wrapper of the moveit_commander, its constructor takes the name of one of the robot groups for which the planning will be performed.


Import the hand commander along with basic rospy libraries:

import rospy
from sr_robot_commander.sr_hand_commander import SrHandCommander

The constructor for the SrHandCommander takes a name parameter that should match the group name of the robot to be used.

As well as creating an instance of the SrHandCommander class, we must also initialise our ros node:

rospy.init_node("sr_hand_commander_example", anonymous=True)
hand_commander = SrHandCommander("right_hand")

Getting basic information

We can get the name of the robot, group or planning reference frame:

print "Robot name: ", hand_commander.get_robot_name()
print "Group name: ", hand_commander.get_group_name()
print "Planning frame: ", hand_commander.get_planning_frame()

Get the list of names of the predifined group states from the srdf and warehouse for the current group:

# Refresh them first if they have recently changed

print "Named targets: ", hand_commander.get_named_targets()

Get the joints position and velocity:

joints_position = hand_commander.get_joints_position()
joints_velocity = hand_commander.get_joints_velocity()

print("Hand joint positions\n" + str(joints_position) + "\n")
print("Hand joint velocities\n" + str(joints_velocity) + "\n")

Get the current joint state of the group being used:

current_state = hand_commander.get_current_state()

# To get the current state while enforcing that each joint is within its limits
current_state = hand_commander.get_current_state_bounded()

Setting functions

You can change the reference frame to get pose information:


You can also activate or deactivate the teach mode for the robot:

# Activation: stops the the trajectory controllers for the robot, and sets it to teach mode.

# Deactivation: stops the teach mode and starts trajectory controllers for the robot.  
# Currently this method blocks for a few seconds when called on a hand, while the hand parameters are reloaded.

Plan/move to a joint-space goal

Using the methods plan_to_joint_value_target, move_to_joint_value_target or move_to_joint_value_target_unsafe, a set of the joint values can be given for the specified group to create a plan and send it for execution.


  • joint_states is a dictionary with joint name and value. It can contain joints’ values of which need to be changed.
  • wait indicates if the method should wait for the movement to end or not (default value is True)
  • angle_degrees should be set to true if the input angles are in degrees (default value is False)

IMPORTANT: Bear in mind that the names of the joints are different for the right and left hand.

rospy.init_node("robot_commander_examples", anonymous=True)

hand_commander = SrHandCommander(name="right_hand")
joints_states = {'rh_FFJ1': 90, 'rh_FFJ2': 90, 'rh_FFJ3': 90, 'rh_FFJ4': 0.0,
                 'rh_MFJ1': 90, 'rh_MFJ2': 90, 'rh_MFJ3': 90, 'rh_MFJ4': 0.0,
                 'rh_RFJ1': 90, 'rh_RFJ2': 90, 'rh_RFJ3': 90, 'rh_RFJ4': 0.0,
                 'rh_LFJ1': 90, 'rh_LFJ2': 90, 'rh_LFJ3': 90, 'rh_LFJ4': 0.0, 'rh_LFJ5': 0.0,
                 'rh_THJ1': 40, 'rh_THJ2': 35, 'rh_THJ3': 0.0, 'rh_THJ4': 65, 'rh_THJ5': 15,
                 'rh_WRJ1': 0.0, 'rh_WRJ2': 0.0}
hand_commander.move_to_joint_value_target(joints_states, wait=False, angle_degrees=True))

In this example, joint states for a hand are sent to the HandCommander, the method is prompted by the wait=False argument to not wait for the movement to finish executing before moving on to the next command and the angle_degrees=True argument tells the method that the input angles are in degrees, so require a conversion to radians.

Plan/move to a predefined group state

Using the methods plan_to_named_target or move_to_named_target will allow to plan or move the group to a predefined pose. This pose can be defined in the srdf or saved as a group state in the moveit warehouse.


  • name is the unique identifier of the target pose
  • wait indicates if the method should wait for the movement to end or not (default value is True)

pack is a predifined pose defined in the SRDF file for the right_hand group:

<group_state group="right_hand" name="pack">
  <joint name="rh_THJ1" value="0.52"/>
  <joint name="rh_THJ2" value="0.61"/>
  <joint name="rh_THJ3" value="0.00"/>
  <joint name="rh_THJ4" value="1.20"/>
  <joint name="rh_THJ5" value="0.17"/>
  <joint name="rh_FFJ1" value="1.5707"/>
  <joint name="rh_FFJ2" value="1.5707"/>
  <joint name="rh_FFJ3" value="1.5707"/>
  <joint name="rh_FFJ4" value="0"/>
  <joint name="rh_MFJ1" value="1.5707"/>
  <joint name="rh_MFJ2" value="1.5707"/>
  <joint name="rh_MFJ3" value="1.5707"/>
  <joint name="rh_MFJ4" value="0"/>
  <joint name="rh_RFJ1" value="1.5707"/>
  <joint name="rh_RFJ2" value="1.5707"/>
  <joint name="rh_RFJ3" value="1.5707"/>
  <joint name="rh_RFJ4" value="0"/>
  <joint name="rh_LFJ1" value="1.5707"/>
  <joint name="rh_LFJ2" value="1.5707"/>
  <joint name="rh_LFJ3" value="1.5707"/>
  <joint name="rh_LFJ4" value="0"/>
  <joint name="rh_LFJ5" value="0"/>
  <joint name="rh_WRJ1" value="0"/>
  <joint name="rh_WRJ2" value="0"/>

Here is how to move to it:

rospy.init_node("robot_commander_examples", anonymous=True)
hand_commander = SrHandCommander(name="right_hand")

# Only plan

# Plan and execute

Move through a trajectory of predefined group states

Using the method run_named_trajectory, it is possible to specify a trajectory composed of a set of names of previously defined group states (either from SRDF or from warehouse), plan and move to follow it.


  • trajectory specifies a dictionary of waypoints with the following elements:
    • name: the name of the way point
    • interpolate_time: time to move from last waypoint
    • pause_time: time to wait at this waypoint
trajectory = [
       'name': 'open',
       'interpolate_time': 3.0
       'name': 'pack',
       'interpolate_time': 3.0,
       'pause_time': 2
       'name': 'open',
       'interpolate_time': 3.0
       'name': 'pack',
       'interpolate_time': 3.0


# If you want to send the trajectory to the controller without using the planner, you can use the unsafe method:

Check if a plan is valid and execute it

Use the method check_plan_is_valid and execute to check if the current plan contains a valid trajectory and execute it. This only has meaning if called after a planning function has been attempted.

import rospy
from sr_robot_commander.sr_hand_commander import SrHandCommander
rospy.init_node("robot_commander_examples", anonymous=True)

hand_commander = SrHandCommander()

if hand_commander.check_plan_is_valid():

Stop the robot

Use the method send_stop_trajectory_unsafe to send a trajectory with the current joint state to stop the robot at its current position.




The SrHandCommander inherits all methods from the robot commander and provides commands specific to the hand. It allows the state of the tactile sensors and joints’ effort to be read, and the maximum force to be set.


Import the hand commander along with basic rospy libraries and the hand finder:

import rospy
from sr_robot_commander.sr_hand_commander import SrHandCommander
from sr_utilities.hand_finder import HandFinder
rospy.init_node("hand_finder_example", anonymous=True)

The constructor for the SrHandCommander takes a name parameter that should match the group name of the robot to be used. Also it takes the hand prefix, parameters and serial number that can be retrieved using the HandFinder.

# Using the HandFinder
hand_finder = HandFinder()
hand_parameters = hand_finder.get_hand_parameters()
hand_serial = hand_parameters.mapping.keys()[0]

# If name is not provided, it will set "right_hand" or "left_hand" by default, depending on the hand.
hand_commander = SrHandCommander(name = "rh_first_finger",

# Alternatively you can launch the hand directly
hand_commander = SrHandCommander(name = "right_hand", prefix = "rh")

Getting information

Use the get_joints_effort method to get a dictionary with efforts of the group joints.

hand_joints_effort = hand_commander.get_joints_effort()
print("Hand joints effort \n " + str(hand_joints_effort) + "\n")

Use the get_tactile_type to get a string indicating the type of tactile sensors present (e.g. PST, biotac, UBI0) or get_tactile_state to get an object containing tactile data. The structure of the data is different for every tactile_type .

tactile_type = hand_commander.get_tactile_type()
tactile_state = hand_commander.get_tactile_state()

print("Hand tactile type\n" + tactile_type + "\n")
print("Hand tactile state\n" + str(tactile_state) + "\n")

Set the maximum force

Use the method set_max_force to set the maximum force for a hand joint.


  • joint_name name of the joint.
  • value maximum force value


## The limits in the current implementation of the firmware are from 200 to 1000 (measured in custom units)
hand_commander.set_max_force("rh_FFJ3", 600)


The SrArmCommander inherits all methods from the robot commander and provides commands specific to the arm. It allows movement to a certain position in cartesian space, to a configuration in joint space or move using a trajectory.


Import the arm commander along with basic rospy libraries and the arm finder:

import rospy
from sr_robot_commander.sr_arm_commander import SrArmCommander
from sr_utilities.arm_finder import ArmFinder

The constructors for SrArmCommander take a name parameter that should match the group name of the robot to be used and has the option to add ground to the scene.

arm_commander = SrArmCommander(name="right_arm", set_ground=True)

Use the ArmFinder to get the parameters (such as prefix) and joint names of the arm currently running on the system:

arm_finder = ArmFinder()

# To get the prefix or mapping of the arm joints. Mapping is the same as prefix but without underscore.

# To get the arm joints

Getting basic information

To return the reference frame for planning in cartesian space:

reference_frame = arm_commander.get_pose_reference_frame()

Plan/move to a position target

Using the method move_to_position_target, the end effector of the arm can be moved to a certain point in space represented by (x, y, z) coordinates. The orientation of the end effector can take any value.


  • xyz desired position of end-effector
  • end_effector_link name of the end effector link (default value is empty string)
  • wait indicates if the method should wait for the movement to end or not (default value is True)
rospy.init_node("robot_commander_examples", anonymous=True)
arm_commander = SrArmCommander(name="right_arm", set_ground=True)

new_position = [0.25527, 0.36682, 0.5426]
# To only plan
# To plan and move

Plan/move to a pose target

Using the method move_to_pose_target allows the end effector of the arm to be moved to a certain pose (position and orientation) in the space represented by (x, y, z, rot_x, rot_y, rot_z).


  • pose desired pose of end-effector: a Pose message, a PoseStamped message or a list of 6 floats: [x, y, z, rot_x, rot_y, rot_z] or a list of 7 floats [x, y, z, qx, qy, qz, qw]
  • end_effector_link name of the end effector link (default value is empty string)
  • wait indicates if the method should wait for the movement to end or not (default value is True)
rospy.init_node("robot_commander_examples", anonymous=True)
arm_commander = SrArmCommander(name="right_arm", set_ground=True)

new_pose = [0.5, 0.3, 1.2, 0, 1.57, 0]

# To only plan

# To plan and move

Saving States

To save a state you must first be connected to the warehouse. After launching the hand, click the green Connect button in the ‘Context’ tab of rviz.


If you have connected successfully you should see two new buttons, Reset database and Disconnect, as can be seen in the following picture:


Next, go to the ‘Stored States’ tab in ‘Motion Planning’. Here you have full control over the saved states in the warehouse. You can then follow these steps:

  • move the hand to the grasp position
  • Go the ‘Planning’ tab and in the ‘Select Goal State’ select ‘current’ and click update.
  • Finally, go to the ‘Stored States’ tab and click the button Save Goal under the ‘Current State’ group. A prompt will appear to ask you to name the state. Once named, you can plan to and from this state.